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For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are some possibilities:. The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument.
In a declarative sentence in English, if the subject does not occur before the predicate, the sentence could well be misunderstood. The flexible word order also allows one to use language "tools" such as poetic meter and figures of speech more freely.
When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense.
Many word orders are still possible:. The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself. The auxiliary verb is still in second position.
Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?
Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following highly contrived English sentence: German subordinate clauses have all verbs clustered at the end.
Given that auxiliaries encode future , passive , modality , and the perfect , very long chains of verbs at the end of the sentence can occur.
In these constructions, the past participle in ge- is often replaced by the infinitive. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the European language family.
Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German.
Their origin is thus no longer recognizable for most speakers e. Borrowing from Latin continued after the fall of the Roman Empire during Christianization, mediated by the church and monasteries.
Another important influx of Latin words can be observed during Renaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English.
During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music.
The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.
At the same time, the effectiveness of the German language in forming equivalents for foreign words from its inherited Germanic stem repertory is great.
The tradition of loan translation was revitalized in the 18th century, with linguists like Joachim Heinrich Campe , who introduced close to words that are still used in modern German.
Even today, there are movements that try to promote the Ersatz substitution of foreign words deemed unnecessary with German alternatives.
As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek.
These words often have different connotations from their Germanic counterparts and are usually perceived as more scholarly. The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate.
The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July included million words in total.
The Duden is the de facto official dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in The Duden is updated regularly, with new editions appearing every four or five years.
As of August [update] , it is in its 27th edition and in 12 volumes, each covering different aspects such as loanwords , etymology , pronunciation , synonyms , and so forth.
The first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung German Orthography , has long been the prescriptive source for the spelling of German.
The Duden has become the bible of the German language, being the definitive set of rules regarding grammar, spelling and usage of German.
It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.
The most recent edition is the 42nd from The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol. This is a selection of cognates in both English and German.
Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en German verbs are indicated by a hyphen "-" after their stems. Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns.
German is written in the Latin alphabet. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts.
In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner". Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes.
German readers understand these transcriptions although they appear unusual , but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available because they are a makeshift, not proper spelling.
In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e. There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence.
Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts.
These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read.
The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish.
The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting.
The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year.
In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.
Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:.
Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule.
In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages.
The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th.
The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries.
Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language.
Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.
The government-backed Goethe-Institut  named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world.
This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language.
The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world.
The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries. Its founder, statistics professor Dr.
The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.
Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Deutsch disambiguation and German disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language.
Early New High German. Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population.
German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition.
List of territorial entities where German is an official language. German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect.
Grammatical gender in German. German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German.
German orthography reform of High German consonant shift. Outline of German language Deutsch disambiguation German family name etymology German toponymy Germanism linguistics List of German exonyms List of German expressions in English List of German words of French origin List of pseudo-German words adapted to English List of terms used for Germans List of territorial entities where German is an official language Names for the German language.
Die Stellung der deutschen Sprache in der Welt in German 1st ed. Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature.
Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press. A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache.
The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther.
The "Duden" and its History". Die Rolle der II. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung.
Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal. Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government".
Retrieved 15 March Ideas viajeras y sus objetos. Contacto de lenguas en el sur de Chile". German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey 1st ed.
Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Archived from the original on 15 May The "Duden" and Its History".
The Publisher as Teacher: Retrieved 5 December It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script.
In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.
The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June In the second half of the 19th century Germany displaced France as the prime role model for Chile.
This however met some criticism when Eduardo de la Barra wrote disparangingly about a "German bewichment". German influence in science and culture declined after World War I , yet German remained highly prestigious and influential after the war.
The Consonants of German: The German Language in a Changing Europe. Retrieved 6 February Lay summary 6 February The Structure of German.
Retrieved 26 February Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Lay summary 26 February The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P.
Biography of a Language. Combines linguistic, anthropological, and historical perspectives in a "biography" of German in terms of six "signal events" over millennia, including the Battle of Kalkriese, which blocked the spread of Latin-based language north.
Minority languages of Austria. French German Italian Romansh. Lombard Romand Sinte Swiss German. Oshiwambo Kwanyama Ndonga Afrikaans German.
Languages of South Africa. According to contemporary philology. English dialects Yola Fingallian Scots.
North Germanic and East Germanic. Gothic Crimean Gothic Burgundian Vandalic. They are the superior longitudinal muscle , the inferior longitudinal muscle , the vertical muscle , and the transverse muscle.
These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges as in tongue rolling , and flattening and rounding its surface.
This provides shape and helps facilitate speech, swallowing, and eating. The superior longitudinal muscle runs along the upper surface of the tongue under the mucous membrane, and elevates, assists in retraction of, or deviates the tip of the tongue.
It originates near the epiglottis , at the hyoid bone , from the median fibrous septum. The inferior longitudinal muscle lines the sides of the tongue, and is joined to the styloglossus muscle.
The vertical muscle is located in the middle of the tongue, and joins the superior and inferior longitudinal muscles. The transverse muscle divides the tongue at the middle, and is attached to the mucous membranes that run along the sides.
The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery , a branch of the external carotid artery.
The lingual veins , drain into the internal jugular vein. The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery.
An area in the neck sometimes called the Pirogov triangle is formed by the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle , the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle , and the hypoglossal nerve.
Innervation of the tongue consists of motor fibers, special sensory fibers for taste, and general sensory fibers for sensation.
Innervation of taste and sensation is different for the anterior and posterior part of the tongue because they are derived from different embryological structures pharyngeal arch 1 and pharyngeal arches 3 and 4, respectively.
The upper surface of the tongue is covered in masticatory mucosa a type of oral mucosa which is of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors. The tongue can also divide itself in dorsal and ventral surface.
The dorsal surface is a stratified squamous keratinized epithelium which is characterized by numerous mucosal projections called papillae.
The ventral surface is stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium which is smooth. The tongue begins to develop in the fourth week of embryogenesis from a median swelling, the median tongue bud known as the tuberculum impar , of the first pharyngeal arch.
In the fifth week a pair of lateral swellings, the lateral lingual swellings distal tongue buds one on the right side and one on the left, form on the first pharyngeal arch.
These lingual swellings quickly expand and cover the tuberculum impar and continue to develop through prenatal development. They form the anterior part of the tongue that makes up two thirds of the length of the tongue.
The line of their fusion is marked by the median sulcus. In the fourth week a swelling appears from the second pharyngeal arch , in the midline, called the copula.
During the fifth and sixth weeks the copula is overgrown by a swelling from the third and fourth arches mainly from the third arch called the hypopharyngeal eminence , and this develops into the posterior part of the tongue the other third.
The hypopharyngeal eminence develops mainly by the growth of endoderm from the third pharyngeal arch. The boundary between the two parts of the tongue, the anterior from the first arch and the posterior from the third arch is marked by the terminal sulcus.
At the tip of the terminal sulcus is the foramen caecum , which is the point where the embryological thyroid begins to descend. Chemicals that stimulate taste receptor cells are known as tastants.
Once a tastant is dissolved in saliva , it can make contact with the plasma membrane of the gustatory hairs, which are the sites of taste transduction.
The tongue is equipped with many taste buds on its dorsal surface, and each taste bud is equipped with taste receptor cells that can sense particular classes of tastes.
Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami.
The tongue is an important accessory organ in the digestive system. The tongue is used for crushing food against the hard palate, during mastication and manipulation of food for softening prior to swallowing.
Consequently, the tongue can grind against the hard palate without being itself damaged or irritated. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue enable the shaping of the tongue which facilitates speech.
The tongue plays a role in physical intimacy and sexuality. The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.
A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie. The tongue is tied to the floor of the mouth by a very short and thickened frenulum and this affects speech, eating, and swallowing.
The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue , and median rhomboid glossitis ; burning mouth syndrome , oral hairy leukoplakia , oral candidiasis thrush , black hairy tongue and fissured tongue.
There are several types of oral cancer that mainly affect the tongue. Mostly these are squamous cell carcinomas.
Food debris, desquamated epithelial cells and bacteria often form a visible tongue coating. The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body.
The oral mucosa is very thin underneath the tongue, and is underlain by a plexus of veins. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration apart from Intravenous therapy of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering chest pain from angina pectoris.
The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish. As a consequence most vertebrate animals - amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals - have tongues.
In mammals such as dogs and cats , the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking. The tongues of these species have a very rough texture which allows them to remove oils and parasites.
Some dogs have a tendency to consistently lick a part of their foreleg which can result in a skin condition known as a lick granuloma. As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow.
Some animals have tongues that are specially adapted for catching prey. For example, chameleons , frogs , and anteaters have prehensile tongues. For example, butterflies do not lick with their proboscides; they suck through them, and the proboscis is not a single organ, but two jaws held together to form a tube.
The tongue can be used as a metonym for language. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost , and began to speak with other tongues Many languages  have the same word for "tongue" and " language ".
A common temporary failure in word retrieval from memory is referred to as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously — something said or done with subtle ironic or sarcastic humour.
A tongue twister is a phrase made specifically to be very difficult to pronounce. Aside from being a medical condition , "tongue-tied" means being unable to say what you want due to confusion or restriction.
The phrase "cat got your tongue" refers to when a person is speechless. A "slip of the tongue" refers to an unintentional utterance, such as a Freudian slip.
The "gift of tongues" refers to when one is uncommonly gifted to be able to speak in a foreign language, often as a type of spiritual gift.
Speaking in tongues is a common phrase used to describe glossolalia , which is to make smooth, language-resembling sounds that is no true spoken language itself.
A deceptive person is said to have a forked tongue , and a smooth-talking person said to have a silver tongue. However, in Tibet it is considered a greeting.
Proof of the affront had been captured with a cell phone camera. Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries in recent decades.
In one study, one-fifth of young adults were found to have at least one type of oral piercing, most commonly the tongue.
The tongues of some animals are consumed and sometimes considered delicacies. Hot tongue sandwiches are frequently found on menus in kosher delicatessens in America.
Taco de lengua lengua being Spanish for tongue is a taco filled with beef tongue , and is especially popular in Mexican cuisine.
As part of Colombian gastronomy, Tongue in Sauce Lengua en Salsa , is a dish prepared by frying the tongue, adding tomato sauce, onions and salt.
Tongue can also be prepared as birria. Pig and beef tongue are consumed in Chinese cuisine. Fried cod "tongue" is a relatively common part of fish meals in Norway and Newfoundland.
In Argentina and Uruguay cow tongue is cooked and served in vinegar lengua a la vinagreta.