4. Nov. The First Computers. Es gibt unter Computer-Historikern keine einheitliche Meinung, welcher Computer "der erste" gewesen sei. Xerox Alto verwendete als erster Computer eine GUI und die Desktopmetapher . Mai Vor 75 Jahren präsentierte Konrad Zuse mit dem Z3 den ersten wirklich funktionstüchtigen Computer.
computer erste - thatDer Trommelspeicher konnte zwei solcher Seiten speichern. Doch den Z3 gibt es noch heute zu sehen — als Nachbau. Als Computersystem bezeichnet man einerseits die einen voll funktionstüchtigen Computer in ihrem Zusammenspiel bedingende Gesamtheit von Hardware , Software wie auch angeschlossenen Peripheriegeräten , zum anderen aber auch ein System von Programmen zur Steuerung und Überwachung von Computern. Die von Sony und Philips gemeinsam entwickelte, auf der Laserdisc basierende, Compact Disc erscheint. Darüber hinaus entstanden durch den simplen Aufbau des PCs aus für jedermann leicht erhältlichen Standard- Chips schon ab in Fernost diverse Nachbauten oft auch fälschlich, weil ungenau, IBM- Klon genannt , die für eine weite Verbreitung der Systemarchitektur sorgten. Universelle Computer finden sich in Smartphones und Spielkonsolen. Der Speicher wurde rückwirkend als Z1 bezeichnet. Mit Gutscheinen online sparen.
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Um diesen Aufwand zu reduzieren, wurden Programmiersprachen entwickelt. Komplexere Aufgaben werden in Unteraufgaben zerlegt, die von anderen Programmierern bereits bearbeitet wurden, die wiederum auf die Vorarbeit weiterer Programmierer aufbauen, deren Bibliotheken sie verwenden.
In den 10 Jahren bis war diese Zugriffszahl auf ein Drittel gefallen. Zum Typus des derzeit meistverbreiteten Computers siehe Personal Computer.
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Apple went public in to instant financial success. However, the high price tag of its products and limited software titles caused problems, as did power struggles between executives at the company.
Jobs regained leadership within the company and became the new CEO shortly after. The company returned to profitability. In January , Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc.
Two months later, Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues.
However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior , as well as the origins of source materials.
It differed from its major rivals, the TRS and Commodore PET , because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture.
VisiCalc , a spreadsheet program. By the end of the s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. Lisa won the race in and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.
In , Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language. The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong  due to its high price and limited range of software titles.
It has been suggested that the combination of these three products were responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.
Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin , and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power.
This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points.
The company lost its monopoly in this market and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high-priced products.
Later that year, Apple introduced three lower cost models, the Macintosh Classic , Macintosh LC and Macintosh IIsi , all of which saw significant sales due to pent-up demand.
In , Apple introduced the PowerBook , replacing the "luggable" Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops.
The same year, Apple introduced System 7 , a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities.
It remained the architectural basis for the Classic Mac OS. The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue.
The magazine MacAddict named the period between and as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh.
To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets.
These were the high-end Quadra , the mid-range Centris line, and the ill-fated Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models.
Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the s, including digital cameras , portable CD audio players , speakers , video consoles , the eWorld online service, and TV appliances.
Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience.
The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated because it was not built for multitasking and because several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware.
The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on more powerful hardware. Amelio made numerous changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs and cut costs.
On July 9, , Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses.
On August 15, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh K: The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.
During this period, [ when? The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed " Final Cut Pro " when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market.
In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake ,  as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic.
The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface.
On May 19, , Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, , Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel -based Mac computers in By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.
On December 16, , Apple announced that would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Phil Schiller would deliver the keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs.
The official press release explained that Apple was "scaling back" on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel.
On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health.
In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products".
After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad.
This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US.
It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week. Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured , which premiered in and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley.
On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health.
This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony one buyer, many sellers and can dictate terms to its suppliers.
Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson , who continued with those titles until Levinson became chairman of the board in November.
On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S   and iPhone 5 ,   which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-sourced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ;    and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.
This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc.
Notably, Jobs declares a "Holy War with Google" for and schedules a "new campus" for In March , Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality AR system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image.
It also experienced a significant year-over-year increase in Mac sales. This was contrasted with a significant drop in iPod sales.
In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On May 12, , Apple Inc. On June 6, , Forbes released their list of companies ranked on revenue generation.
In the trailing fiscal year, Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. On April 6, , Apple launched Clips , an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit videos.
The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram , Facebook and other social networks. Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice.
In May , Apple refreshed two of its website designs. Their public relations "Apple Press Info" website was changed to an "Apple Newsroom" site, featuring a greater emphasis on imagery and therefore lower information density, and combines press releases, news items, and photos.
Its "Apple Leadership" overview of company executives was also refreshed, adding a simpler layout with a prominent header image and two-column text fields.
In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: Furthermore, there are five series in development at Apple.
Apple purchased Akonia Holographics in August who makes lenses for augmented reality goggles. On October 23, , Apple introduced the iPod digital music player.
Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin.
It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3. The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back.
Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store , which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download.
On April 24, , the App Store  surpassed one billion downloads. It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control.
The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 5.
Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.
He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:. The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminium The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo.
The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters. The camera cover is sapphire crystal. Look at the details around the SIM-card slot.
On September 9, , Apple introduced the iPhone 6 , alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches. In July , Apple announced that one billion iPhones had been sold.
On September 7, , Apple introduced the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus , which feature improved system and graphics performance, add water resistance, a new rear dual-camera system on the 7 Plus model, and, controversially, remove the 3.
On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus , standing as evolutionary updates to its previous phones with a faster processor, improved display technology, upgraded camera systems and wireless charging.
The iPhone XR comes in an all-screen glass and aluminium design with the most advanced LCD in a smartphone featuring a 6.
On January 27, , Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet , the iPad. On March 2, , Apple introduced the iPad 2 , which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back.
The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, , and marketed as " the new iPad ". The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes.
It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector.
It featured a reduced 7. The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates.
The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time. Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps.
The original Apple Watch smartwatch was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, , being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking.
The second generation of Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2 , was released in September , featuring greater water resistance, a faster processor, and brighter display.
On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 featuring LTE cellular connectivity, giving the wearable independence from an iPhone  except for the setup process.
On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 4 , featuring new display, electrocardiogram and fall detection.
At the Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV previously known as the iTV ,  a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions.
It has HDMI out as the only video output source. Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows purchasing has been discontinued , streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix , and media streaming from an iTunes library.
A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, , with new features such as higher resolution p and a new user interface.
The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a glass touchpad , gyroscope , and microphone.
The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range. It also features 7 tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization    On September 12, , Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages.
For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite.
Apple also offers online services with iCloud , which provides cloud storage and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data,  and Apple Music , its music and video streaming service.
According to the Sydney Morning Herald , Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity.
Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating". Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.
However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27,  the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation.
An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies.
These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized ,  particularly the Power Mac ads.
Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices. BYTE in stated that . There are two kinds of people in the world: Both groups are right.
Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.
Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established.
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to The New York Times in stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company".
It was the marketing company of the decade. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc.
What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can.
Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California , where it houses a testing and research laboratory.
In , Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile 1. The new campus is planned to house up to 13, employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape.
The expansion consists of two locations, with one having 1. At its smaller campus, engineers work on next-generation processor chips to run in future Apple products.
In February , Apple opened their new ,square-foot headquarters in Herzliya , Israel , which will accommodate approximately employees.
The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May by then- CEO Steve Jobs,  after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts.
In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" — individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events,   with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.
Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations.
Fifth Avenue , New York City. IFC mall store in Hong Kong. TsUM store in Moscow. Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture.
Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune company. As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character.
Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company.
To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company.
At Apple, employees are specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise. Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role.
For instance, Ron Johnson —Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, —was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores this was done by Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management.
Each project has a "directly responsible individual," or "DRI" in Apple jargon. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year.
Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base.
In December , Glassdoor named Facebook the best place to work, according to reviews from anonymous employees, with Apple dropping to 48th place, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years.
He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring.
He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony".
Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data.
The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies.
Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions.
Vorgesehenes Einsatzgebiet war die Nuklearforschung. Im Dezember stellten Douglas C. Doch noch wurde das Potential der Computer verkannt.
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